Antiseptic and aseptic surgery
There are two basic kinds of surgical infection : endogenous (or internal) and exogenous (external). As you may have guessed , endogenous infection is in the body of the patient, while heteroinfection contained in the external environment : surgical instruments , clothing, doctors, room air . Both endogenous and exogenous types of infections are subject to removal. External pockets of infection destroyed by complex specific activities called aseptic . Prevention and elimination of internal infection produced antiseptic methods.
Aseptic – a set of measures aimed at preventing ingress of pathogens into the wound , tissues, organs and the body cavity of the patient for surgical procedures and diagnostic procedures . Of course, at different times of the requirements for aseptic techniques and parameters conditional sterility premises changed . At the same time still preserved two basic principles of asepsis :
1. Anything touching the wound ( medical tools ) must be sterile.
2 . All patients surgical department should be divided into “clean” and ” festering .”
The main objective of aseptic measures – is the destruction of microbes and their spores physical and chemical methods .
Fight against airborne infection
To combat microbes and spores in the air special events . Primarily operating and dressing room will be equipped with special ventilation systems . Be sure to conduct regular damp cleaning and airing . To destroy pathogens regular irradiation with ultraviolet lamps. To prevent respiratory infections in operating rooms and dressing chambers prohibited without talking gauze bandages .
sterilization of instruments
Compulsory sterilization is required for all instruments, devices and materials in contact with the wound of the patient. Thorough disinfection is also subject to the patient’s skin and hands of medical professionals working in the surgical wards .
When performing surgery and other invasive procedures may be used special sterile surgical coverage , which can isolate the operating field. On the surgical field can be pre- applied to be cut sterile stuffer material that will maintain a sterile barrier between the surgeon’s hands , the operating wound and the patient’s skin , where germs can get into the wound.
Antiseptic – a set of therapeutic and preventive measures aimed at eliminating pathogens in wounds or other pathological formations in the body as a whole. Distinguish between preventive and curative antiseptics .
Prophylactic antiseptic provided to prevent microorganisms in a wound or body of the patient (e.g., injection site antiseptic treatment ) .
Antiseptic healing a number of techniques by which manages to destroy the population of pathogens in the wound or in the body as a whole. Common methods of treatment include antiseptics :
mechanical – removal of infected and necrotic tissue , removal of foreign bodies, autopsy streaks , pockets, surgical treatment of wounds and other manipulations ;
physical – bandages hygroscopic application , thermal exposure , ultrasound applying solutions with high osmotic pressure;
chemical – microbicides and bacteriostatic agents ;
biological – antibiotics , bacteriophages ( bacterial viruses ) , enzymes, antitoxins and other biological agents in the fight against pathogenic flora .
Depending on which method is used antiseptics , as distinguished local and general antiseptic . Under local antiseptics understand superficial application of disinfectants , such as the use of powders , ointments , applications , solutions . Also topical antiseptics may be deep : injection of decontaminating agents deep into the wound , holding blockades and so on.
General antiseptic – it’s saturation of the body antiseptic ( antibiotics, sulfonamides ), which the bloodstream gradually enter the site of infection and destroy it.
When applying antiseptics doctor should be understood that in some cases they can be dangerous for the patient , causing a number of side effects such as toxicity , allergy , goiter, dermatitis, candidiasis and other violations .