Schizophrenia: Causes and Treatment
Schizophrenia – a disease whose existence is known to everyone . The most important difference from schizophrenia almost all other human diseases is a huge number of myths , prejudices and misconceptions that accompany this disease in people’s minds . These misconceptions have a tremendous negative impact on the recognition of the disease , early treatment , long-term prognosis , the possibility of social order – that is, the fate of the human suffering it .
If you had a chance to directly confront this disease , then to overcome it you need reliable information . In schizophrenia, the patient and his family can and should find help and support , and not to be alone with the disease and to hide it from others , afraid to face the fear and condemnation. In this regard, schizophrenia should not differ from common medical conditions , such as hypertension , diabetes or asthma, in which the patient can always expect help , attention and sympathy of others and hurt ” is not a disgrace .”
Proper understanding of the disease contributes to overcoming it .
If you are faced with this disease , try to learn more about it in the literature. Impractical to obtain this information from the benefits of psychiatry for doctors as they are written , usually complicated special language that few understand the layperson . Besides books available to you may not be new information and they tend to become obsolete. Much better to read books , designed for consumers of mental health care and their families . Start with this brief guide , read it to the end.
What is schizophrenia ?
Schizophrenia is a brain disease that violates a person’s ability to think correctly , to control their emotions , make decisions and communicate with others . The vast majority of patients with schizophrenia do not pose a danger to others , even despite the fact that their behavior may seem strange or unpredictable.
Despite widespread fears and prejudices concerning schizophrenia , in reality it is treatable , and the latest innovative technology is constantly improving prognosis. New types of treatment are increasingly reduce the need for hospitalization of patients and allow them to lead a normal , independent and productive lives .
The name ” schizophrenia ” comes from the Greek word shizo – split, splitting and fren – soul , mind. Thus, the title is the main symptom of the disease – a violation of the unity , integrity of mind and mental reactions discrepancy external stimuli .
causes of schizophrenia
Causes of schizophrenia , as well as most other causes of human diseases is not fully installed. The most recognized is the point of view according to which the leading role in the onset of schizophrenia plays a hereditary factor . In other words , some people are genetically predisposed to the emergence of schizophrenia , as well as others are predisposed to cancer, heart disease , diabetes and other chronic diseases .
The closer the degree of kinship to the patient and more patients in the family, so this predisposition above; At the same time, the disease itself is not a pure hereditary predisposition is transmitted only in the presence of strong stress factors which affecting for life, leading to the pathological process .
Thus, in the development of the disease are important combination of hereditary ( predisposing ) and environmental ( triggering ) factors.
To environmental stress factors include trauma , physical illness , intoxication , in a word , all the variety of adverse effects.
Also admit that schizophrenia , along with a genetic predisposition may contribute to brain damage during pregnancy , childbirth and the early periods of development , for example, as a result of a viral infection in the mother or the child’s brain hypoxia during labor.
The latest scientific research shows that schizophrenia is associated with a change in neurochemical metabolic processes , and in the future and evolution of structures in the brain. Important mechanism , which is associated with the appearance of symptoms of the disease is metabolic brain neurotransmitters , especially dopamine and serotonin , gamma -aminobutyric acid ( GABA) , glutamate , norepinephrine , acetylcholine , and various neuropeptides , which entail a change in functional activity certain areas of the brain .
For the discovery of the role of dopamine in schizophrenia , which occurred in the 60- ies of XX century , in 2000, its author , Arvid Carlsson was awarded the Nobel Prize .
The connection between the symptoms of schizophrenia and an excess of dopamine in the limbic system of the brain and with his own disadvantage in the prefrontal cortex.
Widespread neuroimaging ( brain computed tomography ) revealed brain regions undergoing change in schizophrenia. This extension of the lateral and third ventricles of the brain , cortical atrophy in the frontal lobe and limbic regions of the brain , strengthening hemispheric asymmetry .
treatment of Schizophrenia
Modern medicine has made great progress in the diagnosis of schizophrenia , the study of the causes and mechanisms of development . Effective treatment of schizophrenia has become possible.
As with any mental disorder , and for the treatment of schizophrenia requires a comprehensive approach . You can not make treatment of schizophrenia only by biological methods, even though most modern drugs need psychotherapeutic -cal assistance, training, patient’s relatives and himself the necessary skills .
It is crucial to recognize the onset of schizophrenia and start treatment , to devise a system of rehabilitation of the patient. Of great importance is the credibility of the doctor , understanding and cooperation with them.
The decision on the part of the patient’s preferred form of treatment ( inpatient , semi-stationary , outpatient ) takes a doctor. In some cases, treatment is possible in the home, in some cases required emergency hospitalization .
Treatment to be effective , you need to choose the correct matching medicines, eliminating the symptoms of schizophrenia , which have minimal side effects and reduced quality of life .
Many of the symptoms of schizophrenia can be treated successfully . Like most chronic diseases ( such as diabetes or coronary heart disease) , it can not be cured completely. However , most patients with special drugs ( antipsychotics ) can be well controlled schizophrenia symptoms and improve the quality of life of patients and their families .
Antipsychotics (neuroleptics ) help fight hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder . Thus , antipsychotic drugs are currently the mainstay of treatment of patients with schizophrenia.