Structure and function of the tonsils
Tonsils are aggregations of lymphoid tissue oval shape, which are located on the boundary of the oral cavity and pharyngeal mucosa . The objectives of these formations are extremely important : Almonds are the first “filter” for germs and viruses entering from the air and food. Moreover, they operate hematopoietic function and participate in the development of immunity.
Tonsils are divided into paired and unpaired .
To pair the tonsils include:
palatine , also called the first and second glands and tonsils . They are located in the recess between the soft palate and tongue .
trumpet ( fifth and sixth tonsils ) . Located in the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube .
By unpaired tonsils include:
pharyngeal (other names : nasopharyngeal , third tonsil , Luschka’s tonsil ) . Located in the rear of the roof of the throat .
lingual (fourth amygdala ) . Located at the rear surface of the tongue.
Tonsils are part lymphadenoid pharyngeal ring which is part of the lymphatic system, and central authorities relates to the immune system.
Tonsils are porous . Tonsils are different from others in that they are riddled with gaps (grooved ) . In fact, the gaps are traps for germs and viruses and are a place where the immune system “get acquainted ” with pathogenic microorganisms . In each of the tonsils is 10-20 lacunae .
Chronic tonsillitis within lacunae are pathological microorganisms which, when certain factors lead to the exacerbation of the disease .
Throughout the depth and on the surface of the tonsils are located follicles . In healthy follicles produce gaps and macrophages , lymphocytes and plasma cells in the required quantity . These cells are involved in fighting infections and tonsillitis in foreign microorganisms and they are components of pus located in the follicles and lacunae .
Pharyngeal tonsil comprises several laterally extending folds of mucous membrane that is covered by ciliated epithelium.
Lingual tonsil is divided into two halves by a median furrow and septum. Its surface is bumpy , it is covered by stratified squamous epithelium and has a shallow recess in the bottom of which are open ducts of the salivary glands .
Size pipe tonsils significantly less than others . They consist of diffuse lymphoid tissue and small amount of lymphoid nodules. Pipe tonsils protect organs of hearing and balance against foreign substances .
Outside tonsils covered with mucous membrane, which is a capsule tonsil . They are lined with a layer of the rear fiber ( fiber okolomindalikovaya ) . If the complication of tonsillitis pus follicles or lacunae misses the capsule and okolomindalikovuyu fiber , then a peritonsillar abscess .
Tonsils are well supplied with nerves . That’s why their inflammation and painful sensations . Tonsils are supplied with blood from branches of the external carotid artery , so fraught with purulent complications of angina breakthrough abscesses into the bloodstream and sepsis syndrome Lemierre streptococcal meningitis.
function of the tonsils
As mentioned above, the tonsils are part of the immune system . Consider the function of the tonsils more:
barrier function . Tonsils destroy the microorganisms which fall into the oral cavity with air, food , or are already in the body (caries , gingivitis, periodontitis , tonsillitis, chronic ) . Perform the role of weapons macrophages cells that are produced in the follicles of the tonsils.
immunogenic function . In mature follicles tonsils white blood cells – T-and B – lymphocytes. These immune system cells have a central role in the organism immune defense . Lymphocytes produce a variety of immunoglobulins (antibodies ) , which are responsible for a specific immune response.
With the pathological processes associated with the development of the tonsils hypertrophy of the tonsils , chronic tonsillitis , snoring , sore throats , paratonzillita , nasopharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy .
Suppurative processes in the tonsils , the violation of their functions , the loss of the tonsils resulting tonzilloektomii reduce immune defenses . To avoid this , it is important to monitor the health of their tonsils. The survey carried out tonsils and ENT doctors immunologist .
Have a medical condition for which it is recommended to remove the tonsils ( tonsillitis too frequent , shortness of breath due to the highly enlarged tonsils , complications of the internal organs , etc.). This solution requires a careful assessment of all the ” pros” and “cons” . The operation can be assigned, if possible conservative treatment proved ineffective .