What is a colonoscopy
Colonoscopy (or fibrocolonoscopy ) – method study of the colonic mucosa , which is performed using an endoscope – a flexible tube with a diameter of 1 cm and a length of about 1.5 meters . At the insertion end of the endoscope is a miniature lighting and optical devices , allowing the opportunity to visually assess the condition of the colon mucosa . Unlike sigmoidoscopy , colonoscopy allows you to explore all parts of the colon ( from the line to the blind ) .
Colonoscopy – informative enough research method , which gives the ability to diagnose diseases such as ulcerative colitis, benign and malignant tumors , Crohn’s disease , etc. In the study may conduct video , photography, removal of tissue for biopsy and removal revealed pathological formations.
When colonoscopy patient wearing only a gown , and a study conducted with the patient lying on his left side with knees to chest pursed . Colonoscopy performed proctologist or endoscopist .
Indications for colonoscopy
Diagnostic indications for colonoscopy are any suspected disease of the colon :
benign and malignant neoplasms ;
ulcerative colitis ;
suspected Crohn’s disease;
identifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding ;
Further diagnostic , and therapeutic indications exist for colonoscopy , namely :
removal of benign tumors ( polyps );
holding coagulation sources of bleeding ;
eliminating bloat or intussusception .
Absolute contraindications for colonoscopy are a state of shock , acute myocardial infarction , bowel perforation , peritonitis , and fulminant form of ischemic colitis.
There are relative contraindications to colonoscopy. They are ill-prepared for the examination of the intestine , the presence of intestinal bleeding , multiple surgeries in the pelvic area , large hernia. Also, the diagnostic procedure may be contraindicated in patients with pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency, and also in the presence of artificial valves .
Preparing for a colonoscopy
For maximum objectivity and informative study patient before colonoscopy need to prepare . All necessary instructions for the preparation of the patient can be obtained from the physician or nurse. The main requirement for the colonoscopy is the absence of stool in the bowel lumen . Not clean the intestines is grounds for denial of the study. However, in some cases, the doctor , though , he decides to colonoscopy . In this case, substantially increases the probability of misdiagnosis , since the doctor may not notice the presence of certain pathological changes in intestines.
2 days before the examination the patient needs to go on a special diet . And if there is a tendency to constipation , then adhere to dietary need 3-4 days. Necessary to eliminate the use of all those foods that promote the formation of space and chairs gassing . Need to avoid eating fruit ( peaches, apples , apricots , figs , grapes, tangerines, oranges , bananas ) , raw vegetables ( beets, carrots, cabbage, turnips , radishes , garlic, onions , radishes ) , greens, barley , oat , millet porridge , black bread , nuts, seeds , raspberries , gooseberries , legumes , mushrooms, carbonated drinks , kvass and milk. Permitted the use of lean boiled fish , birds, clear soups, dairy products , nesdobnoe cookies, jellies , carbonated drinks, tea. On the day of the survey only allowed liquids: soups , boiled water , tea. At the preparatory stage is to refrain from the use of iron and activated carbon.
One day before the colonoscopy necessary measures to clean the intestines. To put this cleansing enemas and taking laxatives . Benefits enemas that it is very affordable way . At the same time the enema is extremely inconvenient to use and not very effective .
With regard to medicines for bowel cleansing , among them there are quite effective , but inconvenient to use the funds as they require the use of up to 4 liters of fluid . Use of these drugs can cause side effects , particularly in the elderly , patients with cardiovascular failure , kidney disease and patients taking diuretics , ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs, ARA . At the same time, there are more convenient to use tools , but their efficacy and safety is highly questionable. In this case, the optimal solution is a drug MOVIPREP ®, which allows to reduce the amount of fluids you drink up to 2 liters instead of 4 , thus providing a complete purgation . This is achieved thanks to the special composition of the drug. Ascorbate complex helps reduce the use of drug solution to 2 liters and thus increase stool volume . Macrogol (polyethylene glycol 3350 ) helps to increase stool and stimulates peristalsis . Sodium sulfate causes a strong osmotic effect , potassium chloride and sodium help to maintain the balance of electrolytes that have been lost in the stool .
Benefits of the drug MOVIPREP ® and that it may take the elderly , patients with cardiovascular failure , renal disease , diabetes , and persons taking diuretics , ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs, ARA . MOVIPREP ® has a minimal effect on the kidney , and the risk of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance is extremely low.
MOVIPREP ® preparation is very simple and easy to use. For the preparation of the first solution must liters Filter bags A and B dissolved in a small amount of water, after which – bring to 1 liter. This solution should be drunk within 1-2 hours. Second liter of solution is prepared similarly. The first liter of solution you need to drink in the evening , and the second – on the morning of colonoscopy . Also available is another drug regimen : Reception 2 liters of solution on the eve of the study.
To prevent violations of water – electrolyte balance while taking the drug MOVIPREP ® should drink an additional 1 liter of fluid . This can tea, bottled water , non-carbonated drinks and jelly .